Technical Club



Basic Linux Commands

mkdir – make directories

Usage

mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY

Options

Create the DIRECTORY(ies), if they do not already exist.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-m, mode=MODE  set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx – umask

-p, parents  no error if existing, make parent directories as needed

-v, verbose  print a message for each created directory

-help display this help and exit

-version output version information and exit

cd – change directories

Use cd to change directories. Type cd followed by the name of a directory to access that directory.Keep in mind that you are always in a directory and can navigate to directories hierarchically above or below.

mv- change the name of a directory

Type mv followed by the current name of a directory and the new name of the directory.

Ex: mv testdir newnamedir

pwd – print working directory

will show you the full path to the directory you are currently in. This is very handy to use, especially when performing some of the other commands on this page

rmdir – Remove an existing directory

rm -r

Removes directories and files within the directories recursively.

chown – change file owner and group

Usage

chown [OPTION] OWNER[:[GROUP]] FILE

chown [OPTION] :GROUP FILE

chown [OPTION] –reference=RFILE FILE

Options

Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP. With –reference, change the owner and group of each FILE to those of RFILE.

-c, changes like verbose but report only when a change is made

-dereference affect the referent of each symbolic link, rather than the symbolic link itself

-h, no-dereference affect each symbolic link instead of any referenced file (useful only on systems that can         change the ownership of a symlink)

-from=CURRENT_OWNER:CURRENT_GROUP

change the owner and/or group of each file only if its current owner and/or group match those specified here.  Either  may  be  omitted,  in which case a match is not required for the omitted attribute.

-no-preserve-root do not treat `/’ specially (the default)

-preserve-root fail to operate recursively on `/’

-f, -silent, -quiet  suppress most error messages

-reference=RFILE use RFILE’s owner and group rather than the specifying OWNER:GROUP values

-R, -recursive operate on files and directories recursively

-v, -verbose output a diagnostic for every file processed

The  following options modify how a hierarchy is traversed when the -R option is also specified. If more than one is specified, only the final one  takes effect.

-H     if a command line argument is a symbolic link to a directory, traverse it

-L     traverse every symbolic link to a directory encountered

-P     do not traverse any symbolic links (default)

chmod – change file access permissions

Usage

chmod [-r] permissions filenames

r  Change the permission on files that are in the subdirectories of the directory that you are currently in.        permission  Specifies the rights that are being granted. Below is the different rights that you can grant in an alpha  numeric format.filenames  File or directory that you are associating the rights with Permissions

u – User who owns the file.

g – Group that owns the file.

o – Other.

a – All.

r – Read the file.

w – Write or edit the file.

x – Execute or run the file as a program.

Numeric Permissions:

CHMOD can also to attributed by using Numeric Permissions:

400 read by owner

040 read by group

004 read by anybody (other)

200 write by owner

020 write by group

002 write by anybody

100 execute by owner

010 execute by group

001 execute by anybody

ls – Short listing of directory contents

-a        list hidden files

-d        list the name of the current directory

-F        show directories with a trailing ‘/’

executable files with a trailing ‘*’

-g        show group ownership of file in long listing

-i        print the inode number of each file

-l        long listing giving details about files  and directories

-R        list all subdirectories encountered

-t        sort by time modified instead of name

cp – Copy files

cp  myfile yourfile

Copy the files “myfile” to the file “yourfile” in the current working directory. This command will create the file “yourfile” if it doesn’t exist. It will normally overwrite it without warning if it exists.

cp -i myfile yourfile

With the “-i” option, if the file “yourfile” exists, you will be

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